Thursday, 24 July 2014

English Grammar in Plain Language


English Grammar in Plain Language

by U Kyaw Tun (UKT), M.S. (I.P.S.T., U.S.A.), and staff of TIL (Tun Institute of Learning).
Based on Barron’s Educational Series, Grammar In Plain English, by Diamond, H. and Dutwin, P., Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, New York. Copyright 1977.Prepared for students of TIL Computing and Language Center, Yangon, Myanmar. Not for sale. ,
index.htm |Top

Contents of this page

TIL Motivation
What makes us human is our Innate linguistic knowledge,
and there is every reason to present the grammars of Burmese and English together
Our Innate linguistic knowledge is our inborn knowledge
of how to communicate with another human being.

We do this by uttering sound in a sentence pattern -- not just calls
as the animals do.
Thus our study is about sentences and the rule governing
the make up of sentences.
(Based on theories of Noam Chomsky
Sentence = ၀ါက် {wa-kya.} -- MLC MED2006-473
Syntax = ၀ါက်စည္း {wa-kya.sæÑ:} [coined word by TIL]
According to A. W. Lonsdale, "rules concerning the necessary relations of words in a sentence is called ကာရကကပၸ {ka-ra.ka.kûp~pa.}. However, because this term is too unwieldy, TIL has come up with ၀ါက်စည္း {wa-kya.sæÑ:} - which I will use throughout my work after noting that it is not recognized by MLC. -- UKT121201
In order to incorporate the Bur-Myan grammar, I have to rely on
#1 Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma, British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899. - in English
#2. Burmese Grammar, unnamed authors, MLC -- in Bur-Myan. I hope to set all the three volumes (for middle schools, high schools and universities) in Romabama and translate them. At present, some have been digitized in WinInnwas font by DawThetThetTheintHan and her assistant. They can be read only on MS FrontPage.
Introduction - ch00.htm
Chapter 1. The Simplest Complete Thought - ch01.htm
     The Sentence Pattern of Performer and Action - Syntax
     ၀ါက်ဖြဲ႕ျခင္း {wa-kya.hpwè.hkring:} --> ၀ါက်စည္း {wa-kya.sæÑ:}
01. What You’ve Always Known
     Exercise 0101
02. Recognizing Complete and Incomplete Thoughts
     Exercise 0201
03. Subject and Predicate: Introducing Grammatical terms:
04. Action Words: Special Problems: Tense
Chapter 2. Understanding Time and Number - ch02.htm
Performer and Action
01. Understanding Time : Tense
02. Understanding Number: Agreement
     Exercise 0201
03. Agreement
03.01. Agreement in present time
     Exercise 0301
03.02. Agreement in past time
     Exercise 0302
03.03. Agreement in present and past time
     Exercise 0303
Chapter 3.  Adding Descriptive Words - ch03.htm
01. Descriptive Words: Adding Meaning
     Exercise 0101 , Exercise 0102
02. Descriptive Words: Special Problems
     Exercise 0201
Chapter 4. Using Descriptive Words - ch04.htm
01. Using Descriptive Words: Using Comparison
     Exercise 0101
Chapter 5. Adding Descriptive Phrases - ch05.htm
01. Descriptive Phrases: Adding Meaning
     Exercise 0101
02. Descriptive Phrases: Correct Placement
     Exercise 0201
Chapter 6. Cumulative Review - ch06.htm
01. Review 1 , 02. Review 2
Chapter 7. Linking Words - ch07.htm
01. Linking Word or copula
01.01. Descriptive word or Adverb/Adverbial
     Exercise 0101
01.02. Subject-Copula-Adverbial
02. Agreement in number between Subject and Copula
03. Verb "to be" or copula "be, is (am), are, was, wear"
04. Contraction -- copula combined with another word
05. Copula deletion -- in other languages
Chapter 8. Number: Special Problems - ch08.htm
01. Special Problems of Agreement
02. Surprisingly Singular Subjects
03. Plural Subjects
Chapter 9. Time: Special Problems - ch09.htm 
01. Past action continues into present
02. Past action before another past action
03. Future action before another future action
04. Two actions occur simultaneously
Chapter 10. Pronouns - ch10.htm 
01. Performer pronoun, Subject pronoun, and Pronoun which receives action.
02. Pronoun Clue 1
03. Pronoun Clue 2
04. Pronoun Clue 3
05. Pronoun Clue 4
06. Pronoun Clue 5
07. Pronoun Clue 6
08. Pronoun Clue 7
09. Pronoun Clue 8
Chapter 11. Cumulative Review - ch11.htm
Chapter 12. Balanced Sentences - ch12.htm
01. Understanding Correct Sentence Structure
Chapter 13. Punctuation - ch13.htm
01. End Mark
02. Comma
03. Common Comma Errors.
04. Semicolon
Chapter 14. Cumulative Review - ch14.htm
01. Style and Clarity
02. Quotation Marks
03. Other Marks of Punctuation.
04. Capitalization
UKT Notes
Doggie's Tale - copy-paste
Noam Chomsky


American Heritage Talking Dictionary (AHTD) - CD. You can have it loaded on your computer hard disc, but if you would like to listen as well you will have to have the CD in your computer.
Burmese Grammar and Grammatical Analysis (Lonsdale 1899)
by A. W. Lonsdale, Education Department, Burma. British Burma Press, Rangoon, 1899, pp. 459.
Photocopy available in TIL library. Original from which the photocopy was taken is in the library of
my brother-in-law U Ba Khin an avid book collector
English Pronouncing Dictionary, 16th ed. (DJPD16) - by Daniel Jones, ed. P. Roach, J. Hartman, and J. Setter, Cambridge University Press, 2003
Glossary of English Grammar Terms (UseE)
The Little Brown Handbook (LBH), 8ed, Addison-Wesley-Longman  (AWL-Glossary)
• {ျမန္မာစာလံုးေပါင္းသတ္ပံုက်မ္း} Myanmar Orthography (MOrtho)
   by MLC (Myanmar Language Commission, Ministry of Education), 1986, pp 292
Myanmar English Dictionary (MED-1993) Published in other years also.
   {ျမန္မာအဂၤလိပ္ အဘိဓာန္} by MLC, 1993, pp 635
• {ခရီးေဆာင္ ျမန္မာအဘိဓာန္} Travelling Pocket Myanmar Dictionary (MMD)
   in Bur-Myan, by MLC, 1999, pp 401.
Universal Burmese-English-Pali Dictionary (UHS-BEPD) - by U Hoke Sein, 1980

UKT notes

Notes on individual words, usage, and the culture and history of the English speaking people from Burmese-Myanmar perspective, will accompany individual files. Previously, it was intended that they will be grouped together at the end of the lessons, but it was found that since I have to write one file at a time, and there is sometimes considerable interval between each writing, the previous plan was not practical.

Doggie's Tale

Mnemonic The Doggie Tale: 
Little doggie cringe in fear -- ŋ (velar),
  Seeing Ella's flapping ears -- ɲ (palatal)
  And, the Shepard's hanging rear -- ɳ (retroflex).
Doggie so sad he can't get it out
  What's that Kasha क्ष when there's a Kha ख ?
  And when there's Jana ज्ञ what I am to do with Jha झ?
Note to digitizer: you can copy and paste the following:
Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū
Ḍ ḍ Ḥ ḥ Ḷ ḷ Ḹ ḹ Ṁ ṁ Ṃ ṃ Ṅ ṅ Ñ ñ Ṇ ṇ Ṛ ṛ Ṝ ṝ Ś ś Ṣ ṣ Ṭ ṭ ɕ ʂ
• Instead of Skt-Dev ः {wic~sa.} use "colon" :
• Root sign √
• Skt-Deva : श ś [ɕ] /ʃ/; ष ṣ [ʂ] /s/; स s [s] /θ/;
• Undertie in Dev transcription: ‿ U203F
• IPA symbols: ə ɪ ʌ ʊ ʧ ʤ θ ŋ ɲ ɳ ɹ
Go back Dog-tale-note-b

Noam Chomsky

Chomsky, Noam . Born 1928 1. American linguist who revolutionized the study of language with his theory of generative grammar, set forth in Syntactic Structures (1957).
Go back N-Chomsky-note-b
End of TIL file

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